Before you purchase a diamond, it is important for you to become familiar with diamond grading. This necessary knowledge will become handy while choosing a diamond and noticing the differences between several options of investment.

The 4cs are the four scales GIA developed in the mid-20th century, and they are designated to evaluate the four most important characteristics of diamonds: cut, color, clarity and carat. It's important to understand them, as these 4 attributes determine the price of a diamond. In the tabs bellow we serve you the most important and understandable information about these scales to assist you to make a wise investment in your next diamond purchase.

The diamond cut is one of the most important aspects of diamonds evaluation, and has a main role in bringing the stone to its highest potential and balancing the weight of the diamond with an optimal cut .

When talking about diamonds cut, it is important to emphasize the difference between the shapes of the diamond (round, oval, heart etc.) and the precision of the cut: the proportions of the diamond, its symmetry and its polish. These proportions depend on the level of precision in the process.

diamond cut

The cutting and polishing of the diamonds facets are designated to bring the diamond to its highest levels of brilliancy and shimmery, by allowing a maximum amount of light to enter the diamond from the top and to be reflected back. This process has three main attributes: brilliance – total light reflection, fire – the spectrum of colors created by the breakage of the light, and scintillation – the sparkle created when a diamond is being moved.

A diamond that had been cut too shallow or too deep allows the light to escape from its bottom section. Such a diamond wouldn't catch the eye due to its lack of sparkle. On the other hand: the round brilliant cut diamond, with its 58 precisely cut and polished facets – catches the eye and sparkle vividly.

diamond cut scale 

Diamonds are created in a long and complex process, occurring in the depth of the earth. During this process, most of the diamonds get natural "birthmarks" that are called inclusions and blemishes, also known as feathers or clouds.

diamond clarity


Those common irregularities are the result of the penetration of other minerals than Carbon into the diamond's structure. The foreign minerals are locked inside the diamond and damage the reflection of light within the diamond. As a diamond lacks these irregularities, it's clarity grade is higher.

 

The clarity grading is performed by a trained professional by using a 10X magnification with a good lighting. The GIA clarity scale varies from Flawless to I-3 (included). The less imperfections seen with 10X magnification, the more rare and valuable is the graded diamond. This chart below grades clarity, from VVS to I clarity.

Although naturally - diamonds come in various colors, the ideal "white" diamond is a colorless diamond. Most commonly, diamonds have delicate hints of yellow and brown, and the degree of appearance of yellow color in the diamond is measured by the color diamond chart, that had been developed by the GIA.

 

The scale divides the color of the diamond into groups of shades, from D to Z. While D to F are the grades of colorless diamonds, S to Z are grades of diamonds with light yellow shades. It is important to note that the differences between the grades of color are very subtle, and determined by a professional examination of a trained eye, and they can lead to great differences in the pricing of the diamond.

Beyond the Z grade, lies a scale of fancy color grades. This scaled starts with light color and ends with fancy dark color, according the type of color of the examined diamond. These colors are diversified: red, orange, green, brown, blue etc. and diamonds can include more than one color. While "white" diamonds get a higher grade as they possess less color, the fancy color diamonds get a higher grading as their colors are more vivid and have stronger tones of hues.

 

Carat is the unit used for measuring the weight of diamonds and it is equal to 0.2 grams. This method of diamond weighing is common since the early years of the 20th century and its principals are quite simple.

Just like one kilogram contains 1000 grams, one carat contains 100 points, and a 50 point diamond is 0.5 carat (ct.) in weight. But there is one big difference: while in grams and kilograms, when the total weight of several objects is equal to the weight of one object their price will be similar (for instance: 10 sacks of 100 grams of sugar = 1 sack of 1 kilogram of sugar) In the case of diamonds there is a great importance to the weight of each stone.

 


Accordingly, a diamond jewel with 50 1 point diamonds would usually cost less than a diamond jewel with one diamond of 50 points of similar color, clarity and cut grading. Additionally, there is a leap in the price of diamonds in the 50 points weight and beyond. There is a connection between the size of the diamond and its weight, and the shape of the cut can influence them both.

The origin of the carat's name is lying in the history of the diamonds industry. The name is taken from the carob seed, which was used for many years as counterweights in balance scales by gem traders, due to their stable and light weight.